The anonymity of a crowd allows people to assume a mask which permits them to behave in a manner which is untypical for them. Lyons describes some of these new approaches that are often collected under the banner of 'social constructionism'.
Research by Johnson and Downing proposes that anonymity leads to conformity of the groups norms. In Murphy J et al eds. Most crowds, however, ha e certain characteristics in common. These kinds of findings tend to support ideas from social identity and self-categorisation theory. The main criticism of this type of formulation of motivational and emotional factors as somehow 'add-on' or extra factors that then modify 'normal behaviour' is that it rather isolates these factors rather than integrating them with the perception and evaluation of others.
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Le Bon was an aristocrat and thoroughly disliked crowds drawn from the ranks of the ordinary classes. Group mind makes people feel, think and act in a manner quite different from that in which each individual would feel, think and act where he in a state of isolation.
Thus, all above explanations throw light on either one or the other factor of the complex phenomenon of crowd behaviour. A group of bus passengers forming a crowd near a roadside canteen on the highway when the driver stops the bus for light refreshment.
In order to evaluate whether social psychology might benefit from a more integrated approach it is useful to evaluate where that integration is occurring and whether it is producing meaningful knowledge.
From all the research it is evident that crowds are not always associated with a loss of self, as sometimes the individual shifts to become part of the collective self. As such, they are incomplete and insufficient. Psychology Crowd behaviour has long been a point of interest for social psychologists.
He is no longer himself, but has become an automation who has ceased to be guided by his will…. The acting crowd focuses its attention on a specific action or goal. These norms emerge from the visible actions of a few people.
It is an activity viewed as an end in itself. Deindividuation loss of selfis criticised by the Social Identity Theories SIT for ignoring the social, cultural and individuality of the self, suggesting that people act as individuals within a crowd and are brought together with a common social identity, different identities bring with them different norms of social conduct.
A conventional crowd gathers for a socially sanctioned purpose. Sociologists have developed number of theories in their attempt to explain it.
Since their personal identities are not recognised they feel that they can behave freely and without any inhibitions. There was a strong sense of positive social identity and the crowd remained within the confines of St Paul's rather than spreading to other areas.
This behaviour is unlike contagion which expresses an irrational behaviour among the crowd. Recent research has shown that crowds can accomplish great feats in challenging social injustices as well as empowering communities. Additional research on anonymity and crowd behaviour by Freedman and Perlick examined contagious laughter in crowds.
Its acts are less rational and more emotional. He says, the greater the number of people in whom the same emotions can be simultaneously observed, the greater the contagion. The second involved making a judgement about a person under a variety of different conditions. In the crowd, mostly critical faculties are in abeyance.
The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. He suggested that the loss of self was a result of individuality being taken over by the dynamics of the group. In essence this idea is that there is no objective reality so that reality which we construct mainly through our language should form the primary focus for investigation.
Reicher studied the riots that occurred in in the St Paul's area of Bristol. The results of this experiment, did indeed show an increased level of aggression within the Ku-Klux Klan group, however, the disguised nurses demonstrated significantly less aggression, suggesting that anonymity does not necessarily produce negative behaviour and deindividuation may lie in the social norm of a particular group, rather than a loss of self, which brings us to the Social Identity Theory SIT.
The audience leader puts forth facts quietly, starts the give-and-take, and keeps ideas scintillating. The earliest systematic interpretation of this theory was proposed by a French writer, Gustave Le Bon in Finally, social identity theory assumes that people have a need to gain a positive evaluation of themselves in relation to other people.
The only difference is that the norms are improvised on the spot. Indeed, it is imperative that these groups gain a better understanding of crowd behaviour in order to prevent future mistakes and disasters.
Whilst it is easy to adopt the view of the crowd as an aggressive mob, it is very inaccurate to do so. Moreover, it is unable to explain all the features of crowd behaviour. 4. Allport’s Theory: F. H. Allport has also criticized McDougall’s theory of sympathetic induction of emotion and behaviour.
He offered the explanation of crowd behaviour by two principles, of which one is the principle of social facilitation. This essay will attempt to investigate how we might best explain crowd behaviour.
Le Bon’s () early attempt to explain this phenomenon suggested that crowd behaviours are pathological and abnormal, where people are reduced to a primitive or instinctive mode of behaviour.
Essay on the Theories of Crowd Behaviour – Crowd behaviour, particularly of the highly irrational and destructive behaviour of the acting crowds, has been a fascinating subject of study of a. Essay on Crowd Behaviour – Crowd behaviour, represents a form of collective behaviour.
Crowd behaviour virtually stems from the crowd situations. 1. “A crowd is a set of people who are physically close together and share a common concern”—Wallace and Wallace.
2. “A crowd is a temporary collection of people reacting together to stimuli”—Horton. The place of anonymity in theories of crowd behaviour Essay Sample. All social psychology theories agree that being part of a crowd alters human psychology however, they differ on where they believe this alteration is situated.Crowd behaviour essay